iPad provides encrypted protection of data in transit, at rest, and when backed up to iTunes. Whether a user is accessing corporate email, visiting a private website, or authenticating to the corporate network, iPad provides assurance that only authorized users can access sensitive corporate information. And, with its support for enterprise-grade networking and comprehensive methods to prevent data loss, you can deploy iPad with confidence that you are implementing proven mobile device security and data protection.
iPad can securely access corporate services and protect data on the device. iPad provides strong encryption for data in transmission, proven authentication methods for access to corporate services, and hardware encryption for all data stored on the device. iPad also provides secure protection through the use of passcode policies that can be delivered and enforced over-the-air. And if the device falls into the wrong hands, users and IT administrators can initiate a remote wipe command to erase private information.
Establishing strong policies for access to iPad is critical to protecting corporate information. Device passcodes are the front line of defense against unauthorized access and can be configured and enforced over-the-air. iPad uses the unique passcode established by each user to generate a strong encryption key to further protect mail and sensitive application data on the device. Additionally, iPad provides secure methods to configure the device in an enterprise environment where specific settings, policies, and restrictions must be in place. These methods provide flexible options for establishing a standard level of protection for authorized users.
A device passcode prevents unauthorized users from accessing data stored on iPad or otherwise gaining access to the device. iOS allows you to select from an extensive set of passcode requirements to meet your security needs, including timeout periods, passcode strength, and how often the passcode must be changed.
The following passcode policies are supported:
• Require passcode on device
• Allow simple value
• Require alphanumeric value
• Minimum passcode length
• Minimum number of complex characters
• Maximum passcode age
• Passcode history
• Grace period for device lock
• Maximum number of failed attempts
The policies described above can be set on iPad in a number of ways. Policies can be distributed as part of a Configuration Profile for users to install. A profile can be defined so that deleting the profile is only possible with an administrative password, or you can define the profile so that it is locked to the device and cannot be removed without completely erasing all of the device contents. Additionally, passcode settings can be configured remotely using Mobile Device Management solutions that can push policies directly to the device. This enables policies to be enforced and updated without any action by the user.
Alternatively, if the device is configured to access a Microsoft Exchange account, Exchange ActiveSync policies are pushed to the device over-the-air. Keep in mind
that the available set of policies will vary depending on the version of Exchange (2003, 2007, or 2010). Refer to the Enterprise Deployment Guide for a breakdown of which policies are supported for your specific configuration.
Secure Device Configuration
Configuration Profiles are XML files that contain device security policies and restrictions, VPN configuration information, Wi-Fi settings, email and calendar accounts, and authentication credentials that permit iPad to work with your enterprise systems. The ability to establish passcode policies along with device settings in a Configuration Profile ensures that devices within your enterprise are configured correctly and according to security standards set by your organization. And because Configuration Profiles can be encrypted and locked, the settings cannot be removed, altered, or shared with others.
Configuration Profiles can be both signed and encrypted. Signing a Configuration Profile ensures that the settings it enforces cannot be altered in any way. Encrypting a Configuration Profile protects the profile’s contents and permits installation only on the device for which it was created. Configuration Profiles are encrypted using CMS (Cryptographic Message Syntax, RFC 3852), supporting 3DES and AES 128.
The first time you distribute an encrypted Configuration Profile, you install them via USB sync using the Configuration Utility or wirelessly via Over-the-Air Enrollment. In addition to these methods, subsequent distribution of encrypted Configuration Profiles can be delivered via email attachment, hosted on a website accessible to your users, or pushed to the device using Mobile Device Management solutions.
Device restrictions determine which iPad features your users can access on the device. Typically, these involve network-enabled applications such as Safari, YouTube, or the iTunes Store, but restrictions can also control device functionality such as application installation or use of camera. Device restrictions let you configure the device to meet your requirements, while permitting users to utilize the device in ways that are consistent with your business practices. Restrictions can be manually configured on each device, enforced using a Configuration Profile, or established remotely with Mobile Device Management solutions. Additionally, camera or web-browsing restrictions can be enforced over-the-air via Microsoft Exchange Server 2007 and 2010.
In addition to setting restrictions and policies on the device, the iTunes desktop application can be configured and controlled by IT. This includes disabling access to explicit content, defining which network services users can access within iTunes, and determining whether new software updates are available for users to install.
Protecting data stored on iPad is important for any environment with a high level of sensitive corporate or customer information. In addition to encrypting data in transmission, iPad provides hardware encryption for all data stored on the device, and additional encryption of email and application data with enhanced data protection.
If a device is lost or stolen, it’s important to deactivate and erase the device. It’s also a good idea to have a policy in place that will wipe the device after a defined number of failed passcode attempts, a key deterrent against attempts to gain unauthorized access to the device.
iPad offers hardware-based encryption. iPad hardware encryption uses AES 256-bit encoding to protect all data on the device. Encryption is always enabled, and cannot be disabled by users. Additionally, data backed up in iTunes to a user’s computer can be encrypted. This can be enabled by the user, or enforced by using device restriction settings in Configuration Profiles.
Building on the hardware encryption capabilities of iPad, email messages and attachments stored on the device can be further secured by using data protection features built into iOS. Data protection leverages each user’s unique device passcode in concert with the hardware encryption on iPad to generate a strong encryption key. This key prevents data from being accessed when the device is locked, ensuring that critical information is secured even if the device is compromised.
To turn on the data protection feature, simply establish a passcode on the device. The effectiveness of data protection is dependent on a strong passcode,
so it is important to require and enforce a passcode stronger than four digits when establishing your corporate passcode policies. Users can verify that data protection
is enabled on their device by looking at the passcode settings screen. Mobile Device Management solutions are able to query the device for this information as well.
These data protection APIs are also available to developers, and can be used to secure enterprise in-house or commercial application data.
iPad supports remote wipe. If a device is lost or stolen, the administrator or device owner can issue a remote wipe command that removes all data and deactivates the device. If the device is configured with an Exchange account, the administrator can initiate a remote wipe command using the Exchange Management Console (Exchange Server 2007) or Exchange ActiveSync Mobile Administration Web Tool (Exchange Server 2003 or 2007). Users of Exchange Server 2007 can also initiate remote wipe commands directly using Outlook Web Access. Remote wipe commands can also be initiated by Mobile Device Management solutions even if Exchange corporate services are not in use.
Devices can also be configured to automatically initiate a local wipe after several failed passcode attempts. This protects against brute force attempts to gain access to the device. When a passcode is established, users have the ability to enable local wipe directly within the settings on iPad. By default, iPad will automatically wipe the device after 10 failed passcode attempts. As with other passcode policies, the maximum number of failed attempts can be established via a Configuration Profile, set by a Mobile Device Management server, or enforced over-the-air via Microsoft Exchange ActiveSync policies.
Mobile users must be able to access corporate information networks from anywhere in the world, yet it’s also important to ensure that users are authorized and that their data is protected during transmission. iPad provides proven technologies to accomplish these security objectives for both Wi-Fi and cellular data network connections.
Many enterprise environments have some form of virtual private networking established. These secure network services are already deployed and typically require minimal setup and configuration to work with iPad.
Out of the box, iPad integrates with a broad range of commonly used VPN technologies through support for Cisco IPSec, L2TP, and PPTP. Additionally, iPad supports SSL VPN
through applications from Juniper, Cisco, and F5 Networks. Support for these protocols ensures the highest level of IP-based encryption for transmission of sensitive information.
In addition to enabling secure access to existing VPN environments, iPad offers proven methods for user authentication. Authentication via standard X.509 digital certificates provides users with streamlined access to company resources and a viable alternative to using hardware-based tokens. Additionally, certificate authentication enables iPad to take advantage of VPN On Demand, making the VPN authentication process transparent while still providing strong, credentialed access to network services. For enterprise environments in which a two-factor token is a requirement, iPad integrates with RSA SecurID and CRYPTOCard. iPad supports network proxy configuration as well as split IP tunneling so that traffic to public or private network domains is relayed according to your specific company policies.
iPad supports SSL v3 as well as Transport Layer Security (TLS v1.0), the next-generation security standard for the Internet. Safari, Calendar, Mail, and other Internet applications automatically start these mechanisms to enable an encrypted communication channel between iPad and corporate services.
iPad supports WPA2 Enterprise to provide authenticated access to your enterprise wireless network. WPA2 Enterprise uses 128-bit AES encryption, giving users the highest level of assurance that their data will remain protected when they send and receive communications over a Wi-Fi network connection. And with support for 802.1X, iPad can be integrated into a broad range of RADIUS authentication environments.
iOS is designed with security at its core. It includes a “sandboxed” approach to application runtime protection and requires application signing to ensure that applications cannot be tampered with. iOS also has a secure framework that facilitates secure storage of application and network service credentials in an encrypted keychain. For developers, it offers a common crypto architecture that can be used to encrypt application data stores.
Applications on the device are “sandboxed” so they cannot access data stored by other applications. In addition, system files, resources, and the kernel are shielded from the user’s application space. If an application needs to access data from another application, it can only do so using the APIs and services provided by iOS. Code generation is also prevented.
Mandatory Code Signing
All iPad applications must be signed. The applications provided with the device are signed by Apple. Third-party applications are signed by the developer using an Apple-issued certificate. This ensures that applications haven’t been tampered with or altered. Additionally, runtime checks are made to ensure that an application hasn’t become untrusted since it was last used.
The use of custom or in-house applications can be controlled with a provisioning profile. Users must have the provisioning profile installed to execute the application. Provisioning profiles can be installed or revoked over-the-air using Mobile Device Management solutions. Administrators can also restrict the use of an application to specific devices.
Secure Authentication Framework
iPad provides a secure, encrypted keychain for storing digital identities, user names, and passwords. Keychain data is partitioned so that credentials stored by third-party applications cannot be accessed by applications with a different identity. This provides the mechanism for securing authentication credentials on iPad across a range of applications and services within the enterprise.
Common Crypto Architecture
Application developers have access to encryption APIs that they can use to further protect their application data. Data can be symmetrically encrypted using proven methods such as AES, RC4, or 3DES. In addition, iPad provides hardware acceleration for AES encryption and SHA1 hashing, maximizing application performance.
Application Data Protection
Applications can also take advantage of the built-in hardware encryption on iPad to further protect sensitive application data. Developers can designate specific files for data protection, instructing the system to make the contents of the file crypto-graphically inaccessible to both the application and to any potential intruders when the device is locked.